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What is fashion marketing?



What is marketing?

Marketing is a business philosophy or way of thinking about the fi rm from the perspective of the customer or the potential customer. Such a view has much merit as it focuses on the acid test for all business – if we do not meet the needs of our customers we will not survive, let alone thrive. Fashion fi rms depend upon customers making repeat purchases and the key to such loyalty is the satisfaction of customers’ needs with garments which are stylish, durable, easy to care for, comfortable, perceived value for money and all the other criteria deemed

relevant by the buyer. For this reason, fashion design personnel should readily appreciate the need to understand the customer’s perspective. Most designers have a mental picture of a typical customer. Fashion marketers ask, how typical is that mental picture and does the ‘customer’ belong to a group of buyers that form a profi table prospect for the company? Notice that the notion of seeing the business from the perspective of the customer does not preclude concern for profi t. Indeed, if profi t is not actively sought then the fi rm’s ability to meet customers’ needs in the long term will be greatly diminished. Marketing comprises a range of techniques and activities, some of which are highly familiar to the general public. Most people have encountered market researchers and all have seen advertisements. Other less public aspects include product development and branding, pricing, publicity, sales promotion, selling, forecasting and distribution. An overview of the range of fashion marketing activities is given later in this chapter. Marketing is a management process concerned with anticipating, identifying and satisfying customer needs in order to meet the longterm goals of the organization. Whilst concerned with the organization’s relationship with customers it is also concerned with internal organizational factors that affect the achievement of marketing goals.

 Is marketing a solution to all business problems?

There are many views of what marketing is and what it does. To the zealots, marketing is the panacea for all business problems and can provide remedies for product failures or falling profi ts. Clearly, this is naive and does not recognize the interdependence of the many business and creative functions within organizations. Nor does this view fully appreciate the wider marketing environment that confronts all fi rms when they embark upon marketing activities. The best marketing plans and activities can be easily and quickly undermined by changes in the economy or in competitors’ actions. Such changes cannot always be anticipated, although a framework for monitoring and anticipating change is discussed in Chapter Two. In the fashion industry, which is highly competitive and is characterized by change, the role of good fortune cannot be easily discounted. The fashion industry is well known for the high failure rate of new businesses and the regular price reductions on product lines that have not sold. Such failures are in part a refl ection of the enormous risk of fashion, but some are also due to the inadequate or inappropriate application of the marketing process. It is the contention of the authors that, when properly applied, marketing will help to reduce some uncertainty in the fashion industry and cut down the number of business failures.

What is fashion marketing?

Fashion marketing is the application of a range of techniques and a business philosophy that centres upon the customer and potential customer of clothing and related products and services in order to meet the long-term goals of the organization. It is a major argument of this book that fashion marketing is different from many other areas of marketing. The very nature of fashion, where change is intrinsic, gives different emphasis to marketing activities. Furthermore, the role of design in both leading and refl ecting consumer demand results in a variety of approaches to fashion marketing which are explored below.

 Fashion marketing in practice

Within the fashion industry there is enormous variation in the size and structure of businesses serving the needs of customers. From a small business comprising a self-employed knitwear designer to major multinational corporations such as Liz Claiborne or Zara, diversity remains a key feature. With legislative changes and expansion of the EU, the gradual removal of trade barriers on a global scale and the growth of the Internet, the fashion industry is increasingly a global business. This implies considerable variation in the cultural, social and economic perspective of the participants. The consequence of these variations in size, experience and perspective is that the practice of fashion marketing is not uniform at a national level, let alone at an international one. At the centre of the debate over the role of fashion marketing within fi rms resides a tension between design and marketing imperatives. Relatively few fashion designers have had formal training in business or marketing, although fortunately this situation is changing in the EU. Similarly, the formal training of marketing personnel can often lack an appreciation of the role of design in business. Training has tended to be separate and this, when coupled with the differing approaches of the two areas, causes divergent views. Design students were traditionally taught to approach problems as though there were no constraints on time or cost so that creativity might fl ourish. The assumption of much of this training was that creativity fl ourishes when there is freedom from structural factors.

Spontaneity, eclecticism and the willingness to take risks in challenging the status quo are some values central to traditional design training. Marketing training, by contrast, embraces different values. Marketers are taught to be systematic and analytical in approaching problems. The foundation of a lot of marketing involves the setting of objectives and quantifying inputs and outputs, such as advertising expenditure and market share. Success, marketing students are taught, comes from careful research and planning, not spontaneity or ignoring market realities such as competitor price levels. Owing to a lack of training, marketing personnel often fail to understand the aesthetic dimension of a design or many qualitative aspects of product development. The above outlines concentrate on differences in perspective between marketing and design personnel but naturally there are areas where they share common values. Good designers and marketing personnel both recognize the need for thorough preparation and the exercise of professional skill, both understand the importance of communication, although with differing emphasis on the visual and process components, and both tend to be in agreement about the functional aspects of clothing, such as whether a garment is waterproof or machine washable. Starkly put, the designer may see the marketing person as one who constrains freedom and imagination, while the marketer may see the designer as undisciplined and oblivious to costs and profi tability. Such views are stereotypes fostered by differing experiences and training, and which are often held by those who do not understand the perspective of both the marketer and the designer. This difference in perspective engenders a range of views about what fashion marketing ought to be. Two views of fashion marketing are shown in Figure 1.2. These views can be labelled design centred and marketing centred, and are detailed below.

Design centred: fashion marketing as promotion

According to this view marketing is seen as synonymous with promotion. Adherents of the view state that designers are the real force, and marketers should merely help to sell ideas to the public. Translated into practice this view tends to have all marketing activity carried out by either public relations or advertising departments or agencies. Customers and potential customers are seen as people to be led or inspired by creative styling that is favourably promoted. At the extreme, it is rationalized that the only people who can appreciate creative styling, in a fi nancial sense, are the more wealthy sections of society. Research within such a perspective is limited to monitoring the activities of others who are thought to be at the forefront of creative change, i.e. fi lm directors, musicians, artists, etc. Many great fashion designers subscribe to this view and have run successful businesses based upon the above assumptions. The principal weakness of this approach is that it depends ultimately on the skill and intuition of the designer in consistently meeting genuine customer needs and consequently earning profi t.

Marketing centred: design as a research prescription

Here marketing is dominant and it regards the designer as someone who must respond to the specifi cations of customer requirements as established by marketing research. Detailed cost constraints may be imposed and sample garments pretested by, for example, retail selectors who may subsequently demand changes to meet their precise needs. Several major retail stores still operate systems not too far removed from this, with merchandisers and selectors exerting considerable control over the designer. The result, according to many, is a certain blandness in the design content of garments available from such retail outlets. It is argued that marketing constraints have strangled the creative aspects of design. Taking profi tability as a measure of popularity, this restrictive prescription for design seems to work for many fi rms. Whether popular acceptance of fashion designs equates with good design is another matter.

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Priyanka Chopra Wore Bedazzled Feather Heels to Joe Jonas’ Bond-Themed Birthday

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Photo: Shutterstock

I need to concede that I saw Priyanka Chopra’s sheer Ralph and Russo minidress before I did her heels. The three levels of plumes unsettled as she ventured out nearby spouse Nick Jonas while in transit to Joe Jonas’ birthday slam, uncovering flashes of skin underneath a beaded bodice. The neck area on this number as well — goodness! — it overwhelmed me, weaved with rainbow sequins and stones. Yet, in the event that you look at Pri’s outfit start to finish, you’ll likely be much increasingly energized by her Amina Muaddi heels, which have a solitary thin lash at the toes, decorated with Adwoa precious stones and a slingback shrouded in wispy quills to mirror the vibe of her dress.

Beautician Mimi Cuttrell set up together this amazing troupe for Priyanka, which was done with slobber commendable chain drop studs from Walters Faith Fine Jewelry and a sparkling grasp. It fit the alluring subject of the gathering that occurred at Cipriani Wall Street: James Bond. While I was at first dazzled by Priyanka’s certainty to walk quickly into the night in something transparent, I’m at last in wonderment of her shoes, which are fundamentally a gem. Continue perusing for a more intensive take a gander at Priyanka’s footwear, at that point gather up the structure or shop a comparable style.3

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Looking for beauty inspiration? Follow these celebrity make-up artists on Instagram

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Photo: Shutterstock

These are the stars who make Beyoncé’s sparkle and Lucy Boynton’s realistic eyes.

Disney’s The Lion King European Premiere – London

Long gone are the days when we would heap on Maybelline’s fantasy matte mousse and pair it with extra sticky lip gleam. Presently, because of brands like Fenty Beauty and innumerable YouTube instructional exercises, we’re substantially more enlightened up about make-up and need to try different things with it.

It’s currently not bad, but at the same time not enough to blow anyone’s mind for big name make-up specialists to post breakdowns of the looks they’ve made on Instagram. Here are the absolute most energizing MUAs with great programs of celeb customers, for all the excellence motivation you’ll ever require…

For graphic experimentation

British make-up artist Jo Baker has worked with everyone from January Jones and Natalie Portman to Emmy Rossum and Sharon Stone. You might recognise some of her most recent work with actor Lucy Boynton when she was promoting Bohemian Rhapsody.

Boynton became known for her sharp, graphic eye make-up, courtesy of Baker. So if you’re bored of a natural look and really want to make an impact with your eye make-up, look no further than Baker’s work.

What we like best about her Instagram page are the weird reference points for looks she creates

For the Beyoncé beat

Make-up artist Sir John has become a celebrity in his own right thanks to his long history of creating Beyoncé’s best looks. Sir John is synonymous with one major thing: a luminescent glow. His signature style is bright and golden skin, along with bold coloured eyes.

Follow him for tutorials and tips to get closer to the coveted Bey glow, and you’ll be sure to spot other famous faces like Mary J Blige and Joan Smalls along the way.

For Hollywood glamour

Patrick Ta’s celebrity client list reads like a who’s who of Instagram It-girls, including the Hadid sisters, the Kardashians, Ariana Grande and Emily Ratajkowski.

Ta writes on his website: “I have always gravitated toward women. Growing up, I knew I was gay but wasn’t out to the world. Women like my mom, my sister and my best friends were the ones who allowed me to be myself. I wanted to create make-up that made women feel confident and beautiful in their own skin, just as women have made me feel.”

You’ll most often see Ta playing around with the perfect red lip and bold smokey eye, for that injection of Hollywood glamour. Earlier this year he even launched his own beauty collection and the first drop was called ‘Major Glow’. Like Sir John, he’s all about making your skin look luminescent.

For runway realness

Pat McGrath is probably the most famous make-up artist in the world, and for good reason. She’s put in years of hard work building up relationships with the biggest fashion brands, creating some seriously iconic looks.

If you want experimentation, look no further than McGrath. Runway beauty is so different from red carpet looks – instead, it’s a time to go bold, weird and really push the boat out.

Some of our favourite looks from McGrath over the years include the Valentino feather lashes and a full face of crystals at Givenchy. She’s also got more every day looks to draw upon and her own make-up line, Pat McGrath Labs, which is worth even more than Kylie Jenner’s beauty brand.

For sultry looks

Make-up is about making you feel good, which pretty much sums up make-up artist Hung Vanngo’s approach. Like everyone else on this list, he’s the go-to beauty guy for all kinds of celebs like Selena Gomez and Gisele Bündchen. When you want extra sex appeal, look to Vanngo for inspiration.

He’s all about big lips, bold smokey eyes and bombshell skin. Whoever said less is more when it comes to beauty obviously wasn’t following Vanngo on Instagram.

Vanngo was born in Vietnam and raised in Canada, and he credits these disparate cultures to helping spark his creativity.

© Press Association 2019

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InStyle’s Badass Women Dinner With Foster Grant

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A group of boss ladies met up for an Instyle Badass Women Dinner facilitated at The London West Hollywood on Tuesday (August 13) in California.

Christina Hendricks: This is a flawless botanical print Alice McCall dress. I adore the energy and summery feel, however the ruching and hilter kilter stitch isn’t getting along with Christina.

Jamie Chung: The entertainer normally present an organized “blogger” look, yet on this event she was overflowing tastefulness wearing a brilliant yellow Rasario bow-adorned corseted dress styled with double shading Giuseppe Zanotti ‘Croisette’ gem donkeys. As much as I cherish the look, I’m a little uncertain about this length on Jamie.

Katherine McNamara: Shunning the summery clothing standard pursued by Christina and Jamie, Katherine’s Rasario dark Spring 2019 outfit was just styled with gems from Swarovski and APM Monaco.

Patricia Clarkson: The on-screen character hasn’t lost any of the appeal and flare we saw during honors season. She looked trendy in her Michael Kors Collection Fall 2019 awry dress styled with Giuseppe Zanotti ‘Tricia’ shoes and a dark velvet “Ladies of the World Unite” grasp.

Tracker Schafer: As you most likely are aware with regards to Hunter’s style, I’m purchasing everything that she’s selling, however I am need to draw a line under those Martin Margiela ‘Tabi’ boots. I do love her Missoni chevron print dress be that as it may.

Jennifer Morrison: This MSGM flower dress feels like a Ginnifer Goodwin dress, however I wanted to see Jennifer shake this strong piece. I love the expansion of the yellow Edie Parker ‘Oval’ pack, however the dark Giuseppe Zanotti stages were somewhat of a let down.

Kat Graham: Giving us Grecian goddess vibes, her sultry two-piece was basically styled with coordinating siphons and Vhernier gems.

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